You are not stand alone
For there are epistemic injustices, which leads on to testimonial injustice and hermeneutical injustice , each of which consists "most fundamentally, in a wrong done to someone specifically in their capacity as a knower"
- you are not separated out from power but work with it, negotiates with it, in matters of knowing and doing. Nor is virtue conceived in abstraction from the materiality of places, persons, and communities:
- In the light if this epistemic ( relating to, or involving knowledge) practices are worth scrutinising
There is a conception of social power which Fricker glosses as "a socially situated capacity to control others' actions" and which manifests in patterns of incredulity, misinterpretation, silencing.
Within this frame, her particular interest is in "identity power" and the harms it enacts through invoking identity prejudices under whose sway hearers deny or withhold credibility to/from speakers qua members of a certain "social type
That a person's capacity to claim recognition as a conveyer of knowledge, a bona fide informant, is essential to her or his achieving human value in a first-, second- and third-personal sense is the deep thought that grounds the argument and carries it forward. Thus, with testimonial injustice, speakers are, variously, thwarted in their claims to acknowledgment as subjects of knowledge, and thereby harmed in their self-development.
With hermeneutical (method or theory of interpretation) .injustice, speakers' knowledge claims fall into lacunae in the available conceptual resources, thus blocking their capacity to interpret, and thence to understand or claim a hearing for their experiences
When such harms go deep, Fricker suggests, people are "prevented from becoming who they are" (5). Even though they may be experienced and performed individually, these are not merely individual harms: testimonial and hermeneutical injustices come from and refer back to a social fabric within which the biases and prejudices that animate and sustain them are tightly entangled, and conceptual lacunae are more and other than places of unknowing, ready to be "filled in" by inserting the appropriate facts.
Structurally, members of some social groups are ill-understood, marginalized, reduced to unintelligibility through patterns of testimonial and hermeneutic injustice that often seem to be everyone's and no one's responsibility.
Source Miranda Fricker
- Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing (Oxford University Press, 2007)