According to Schopenhauer, there are three only three motives that guide choice:
a) Egoism: the desire for one’s own well
b) Malice: the desire for another’s
c) Compassion: the desire for another’s well
These are psychological forces that are ubiquitous. Every human act is referable to one of these three motives.
But is it?
Notably, what is absent from this list is malice to oneself (Madigan 2005).The Schopenhauer scholar David Cartwright calls this the “unnamed incentive